Blackbooks for Study & Struggle – Spring 2017

By April 9, 2017August 24th, 2018Editors' Choice
Black Books

Afro-Atlantic Flight:
Speculative Returns and the Black Fantastic

by Michelle D. Commander (Duke University Press)

Black Rights/White Wrongs:
The Critique of Racial Liberalism

by Charles W. Mills
(Oxford University Press)

In Full Color:
Finding My Place in a Black and White World

by Rachel Dolezal with Storms Reback
(BenBella Press)

Migrating the Black Body:
The African Diaspora and Visual Culture

edited by Leigh Raiford and Heike Raphael-Harnandez
(University of Washington Press)

Through Darkness to Light:
Photographs Along the Underground Railroad

by Jeanine Michna-Bales
(Princeton Architectural Press)

African Immigrants’ Experiences in American Schools:
Complicating the Race Discourse

by Shirley Mthethwa-Sommers and Immaculee Harushimana
(Lexington Books)

Albert Murray:
Collected Essays & Memoirs

edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Paul Devlin
(Library of America)

First Strike:
Educational Enclosures in Black Los Angeles

by Damien N. Sojoyner
(University of Minnesota Press)

Psychiatry and Racial Liberalism in Harlem, 1936-1968
by Dennis A. Doyle
(University of Rochester Press)

Critical Race Theory and Bamboozled
by Alessandra Raengo
(Bloomsbury Academic)

For Their Own Cause:
The 27th United States Colored Troops

by Kelly D. Mezurek
(Kent State University Press)

In the Heat of the Summer:
The New York Riots of 1964 and the War on Crime

by Michael W. Flamm
(University of Pennsylvania Press)

Our Black Sons Matter:
Mothers Talk About Fears, Sorrows, and Hopes

edited by George Yancy et al.
(Rowman & Littlefield Publishers)

Austerity Blues:
Fighting for the Souls of Public Higher Education

by Michael Fabricant and Stephen Brier
(Johns Hopkins University Press)

Critical Perspectives on Black Women and College Success
edited by Lori D. Patton and Natasha N. Croom

Dangerous Spaces:
Beyond the Racial Profile

by D. Marvin Jones

First Strike:
Educational Enclosures in Black Los Angeles

by Damien M. Sojoyner
(University of Minnesota Press)

Fugitive Testimony:
On the Visual Logic of Slave Narratives

by Janet Neary
(Fordham University Press)

The Long, Hot Summer
by William McCord

(University Press of Mississippi)

North of Dixie:
Civil Rights Photography Beyond the South

by Mark Speitz and Deborah Willis
(J. Paul Getty Museum)

Prison Power:
How Prison Influenced the Movement for Black Liberation

by Lisa M. Corrigan
(Univerity Press of Mississippi)

How Language Shapes Our Ideas About Race

edited by H. Samy Alim et al.
(Oxford University Press)

The American Debate Over Slavery, 1760–1865:
An Anthology of Sources

edited by Howard L. Lubert et al.
(Hackett Publishing)

The Education of African Canadian Children:
Critical Perspectives

edited by Awad Ibrahim and Ali A. Abdi
(McGill-Queen’s University Press)

Diversity and the Hidden Truths of Tenure

edited by Patricia A. Matthew
(University of North Carolina Press)

City Kids:
Transforming Racial Baggage

by Maria Kromidas
(Rutgers University Press)

In Love and Struggle:
The Revolutionary Lives of James and Grace Lee Boggs

by Stephen M. Ward
(University of North Carolina Press)

Issues in African American Music:
Power, Gender, Race, Representation

edited by Portia K. Maultsby and Mellonee V. Burnim

Making Black Los Angeles:
Class, Gender, and Community, 1850-1917

by Marne L. Campbell
(University of North Carolina Press)

Archaeologies of Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean:
Exploring the Spaces in Between

edited by Lynsey A. Bates et al.
(University of Florida Press)

Bounds of Their Habitation:
Race and Religion in American History

by Paul Harvey
(Rowman & Littlefield Publishers)

Consuming Stories:
Kara Walker and the Imagining of American Race

by Rebecca Peabody
(University of California Press)

Depression in African American Clergy
by Wynnetta Wimberley
(Palgrave Macmillan)

In Love and Struggle:
The Revolutionary Lives of James and Grace Lee Boggs

by Stephen M. Ward
(University of North Carolina Press)

In the Wake:
On Blackness and Being

by Chritina Sharpe
(Duke University Press)

Postracial America?
An Interdisciplinary Study

edited by Vincent L. Stephens and Anthony Stewart
(Bucknell University Press)

The Sonic Color Line:
Race and the Cultural Politics of Listening

by Jennifer Lynn Stoever
(New York University Press)

Breaking Bread:
Insurgent Black Intellectual Life

by bell hooks and Cornel West

Christianity and Race in the American South:
A History

by Paul Harvey
(University of Chicago Press)

Downed by Friendly Fire:
Black Girls, White Girls, and Suburban Schooling

by Signithia Fordham
(University of Minnesota Press)

Gordon Parks:
I Am You:
Selected Works 1934–1978

edited by Peter Kunhardt and Felix Hoffman

Televised Redemption:
Black Religious Media and Racial Empowerment

by Carolyn Moxley Rouse et al.
(New York University Press)

The Education of African Canadian Children:
Critical Perspectives

by Awad Ibrahim and Ali A. Abdi
(McGill-Queens University Press)

The Intersection of Race and Gender in National Politics
by Wanda Parham-Payne
(Lexington Books)

An Abolitionist Abroad:
Sarah Parker Remond in Cosmopolitan Europe

by Sirpa Salenius
(University of Massachusetts Press)

Colored Travelers:
Mobility and the Fight for Citizenship Before the Civil War

by Elizabeth Stordeur Pryor
(University of North Carolina Press)

Julius Chambers:
A Life in the Legal Struggle for Civil Rights

by Richard A. Rosen and Joseph Mosnier
(University of North Carolina Press)

Mourning in America:
Race and the Politics of Loss

by David W. McIvor
(Cornell University Press)

Muslim Cool:
Race, Religion, and Hip Hop in the United States

by Su’ad Abdul Khabeer
(New York University Press)

Reparation and Reconciliation:
The Rise and Fall of Integrated Higher Education

by Christi M. Smith
(University of North Carolina Press)

Archives of Flesh:
African America, Spain, and Post-Humanist Critique

by Robert F. Reid-Pharr
(New York University Press)

At Mama’s Knee:
Mothers and Race in Black and White

by April Ryan
(Rowman & Littlefield Publishers)

Boys and Men in African American Families
edited by Linda Burton et al.

Critical Black Studies Reader
edited by Rochelle Brock et al.
(Peter Lang Publishers)

John Quincy Adams and the Politics of Slavery:
Selections from the Diary

by David Waldstreicher and Matthew Mason
(Oxford University Press)

Race and Colorism in Education
edited by Carla Monroe

Reel Inequality:
Hollywood Actors and Racism

by Nancy Wang Yuen
(Rutgers University Press)

A Colony in a Nation
by Chris Hayes
(W.W. Norton & Company)

African Women Under Fire:
Literary Discourses in War and Conflict

edited by Pauline Ada Uwakweh
(Lexington Books)

Discovering the South:
One Man’s Travels Through a Changing America in the 1930s

by Jennifer Ritterhouse
(University of North Carolina Press)

Flavor and Soul:
Italian America at Its African American Edge

by John Gennari
(University of Chicago Press)

James Baldwin, Toni Morrison, and the Rhetorics of Black Male Subjectivity
by Aaron Ngozi Oforlea
(Ohio State University Press)

Sanctuaries of Segregation:
The Story of the Jackson Church Visit Campaign

by Carter Dalton Lyon
(University Press of Mississippi)

Standing in Their Own Light:
African American Patriots in the American Revolution

by Judith L. Van Buskirk
(University of Oklahoma Press)

Teacher Education Across Minority-Serving Institutions:
Programs, Policies, and Social Justice

edited by Emery Petchauer and Lynnette Mawhinney
(Rutgers University Press)

The Middle Passage:
Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade

by Herbert S. Klein
(Princeton University Press)

Civil Rights, Culture Wars:
The Fight Over a Mississippi Textbook

by Charles W. Eagles
(University of North Carolina Press)

The Lincoln Institute, Basketball, and a Vanished Tradition

by James W. Miller
(University Press of Kentucky)

Roots of African American Violence:
Ethnocentrism, Cultural Diversity, and Racism

by Darnell F. Hawkins et al.
(Lynne Rienner Publishers)

The Denmark Vesey Affair:
A Documentary History

edited by Douglas R. Egerton and Robert L. Paquette
(University Press of Florida)

After Katrina:
Race, Neoliberalism, and the End of the American Century

by Anna Hartnell
(State University of New York Press)

Black Women, Agency, and the New Black Feminism
by Maria del Guadalupe Davidson

Love and Narrative Form in Toni Morrison’s Later Novels
by Jean Wyatt
(University of Georgia Press)

Resurrecting Slavery:
Racial Legacies and White Supremacy in France

by Crystal Marie Fleming
(Temple University Press)

Sanctuaries of Segregation:
The Story of the Jackson Church Visit Campaign

by Carter Dalton Lyon
(University Press of Mississippi)

Super Freak:
The Life of Rick James

by Peter Benjaminson
(Chicago Review Press)

The Crisis of Race in Higher Education:
A Day of Discovery and Dialogue

edited by William F. Tate IV et al.
(Emerald Publishing Group)

A Mind to Stay:
White Plantation, Black Homeland

by Sydney Nathans
(Harvard University Press)

Black Bostonians and the Politics of Culture, 1920-1940
by Lorraine Elena Roses
(University of Massachusetts Press)

Granville Sharp’s Cases on Slavery
by Andrew Lyall
(Hart Publishing)

Is Science Racist?
by Jonathan Marks

Principles of Leadership:
The Harvey Leadership Model

by William R. Harvey
(Hampton University Press)

Racial Inequality:
A Political-Economic Analysis

by M. Reich
(Princeton University Press)

The Middle Passage:
Comparative Studies in the Atlantic Slave Trade

by Herbert S. Klein
(Princeton University Press)

Booker T. Washington in American Memory
by Kenneth M. Hamilton (University of Illinois Press)

Global Africans:
Race, Ethnicity and Shifting Identities

edited by Toyin Falola and Cacee Hoyer

Message to Our Folks:
The Art Ensemble of Chicago

by Paul Steinbeck
(University of Chicago Press)

Mexico’s Nobodies:
The Cultural Legacy of the Soldadera and Afro-Mexican Women

by B. Christine Arce
(State University of New York Press)

Occupational Health Disparities:
Improving the Well-Being of Ethnic and Racial Minority Workers

edited by Frederick T.L. Leong
(American Psychological Association)

Race and Ethnicity in America
by John Iceland
(Columbia University Press)

The Lovings:
An Intimate Portrait

by Barbara Villet
(Princeton Architectural Press)

The Nature of the Path:
Reading a West African Road

by Marcus Filippello
(University of Minnesota Press)

Atlantic Bonds:
A Nineteenth-Century Odyssey From America to Africa

by Lisa A. Lindsay
(University of North Carolina Press)

The Blood of Emmett Till
by Timothy B. Tyson
(Simon & Schuster)

The Borders of Race:
Patrolling “Multiracial” Identities

by Melinda Mills
(Lynne Rienner Publishers)

The Original Blues:
The Emergence of the Blues in African American Vaudeville

by Lynn Abbott and Doug Seroff
(University Press of Mississippi)

Broken Chains and Subverted Plans:
Ethnicity, Race, and Commodities

by Christopher C. Fennell
(University Press of Florida)

Doctrine and Race:
African American Evangelicals and Fundamentalism Between the Wars

by Mary Beth Swetnam Mathews
(University of Alabama Press)

Even More BlackBooks for Study ‘n’ Struggle!


•  Are Racists Crazy? How Prejudice, Racism, and Antisemitism Became Markers of Insanity by Sander L. Gilman and James M. Thomas (New York University Press; 384 pages; $35). Describes the pathologizing of both race and racism, beginning in the mid-19th century with the attribution of certain qualities to Jews, blacks, the Irish, and American Indians, and later the attribution of madness to racists.

•  Before Jackie Robinson: The Transcendent Role of Black Sporting Pioneers edited by Gerald R. Gems (University of Nebraska Press; 313 pages; $35). Writings on such figures as the jockey Isaac Murphy, the golfer Teddy Rhodes, the aviator Bessie Coleman, and the track star Tidye Pickett.

•  Beyond Expectations: Second-Generation Nigerians in the United States and Britain by Onoso Imoagene (University of California Press; 298 pages; $85 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). A comparative study of how race, class, and ethnicity shape identity for second-generation Nigerian adults in both settings.

•  Black Bostonians and the Politics of Culture, 1920-1940 by Lorraine Elena Roses (University of Massachusetts Press; 227 pages; $90 hardcover, $28.95 paperback). Discusses Dorothy West, Ralf Coleman, Allan Rohan Crite, and other figures from a period of flourishing black literature, theater, music, and visual arts in the city.

•  Blake; or, The Huts of America: A Corrected Edition by Martin R. Delany, edited by Jerome McGann (Harvard University Press; 332 pages; $19.95). Corrected, scholarly edition of a novel by an African-American writer born in 1812 to a free mother and enslaved father; the work, originally published in serial form in 1859, depicts the escape of Henry Blake from a Southern plantation, his travels in the United States, Canada, Africa, and Cuba, and his struggle to unite blacks, free and enslaved, in resistance.

•  The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1838-1956: A History by James Heartfield (Oxford University Press; 486 pages; $65). Traces the history of the BFAS as its focus shifted from slavery in the Americas to colonialism in Africa.

•  Children as Caregivers: The Global Fight Against Tuberculosis and HIV in Zambia by Jean Hunleth (Rutgers University Press; 194 pages; $95 hardcover, $34.95 paperback). Focuses on TB in a study of children as caregivers for guardians in George, a community on the margins of Zambia’s capital, Lusaka.

•  Connecting “The Wire”: Race, Space, and Postindustrial Baltimore by Stanley Corkin (University of Texas Press; 260 pages; $85 hardcover, $27.95 paperback). Examines geographic aspects of race and class in a study of the acclaimed HBO series’ depiction of Baltimore’s built environment.

•  Gender, Justice, and the Problem of Culture: From Customary Law to Human Rights in Tanzania by Dorothy L. Hodgson (Indiana University Press; 187 pages; $80 hardcover, $30 paperback). Draws on fieldwork among Maasai pastoralists in a study of the impact of multiple legal institutions in Tanzania, with particular attention to women.

•  A History of Borno: Trans-Saharan African Empire to Failing Nigerian State by Vincent Hiribarren (Hurst, distributed by Oxford University Press; 311 pages; $70). Examines the history and borders, since 1810, of a region in southeastern Nigeria that is now best-known as once the home base for the Islamist militants Boko Haram.

•  Hollywood’s Hawaii: Race, Nation, and War by Dela Malia Caparoso Konzett (Rutgers University Press; 253 pages; $95 hardcover, $27.95 paperback). A study of cinematic depictions of Hawaii since 1898 and the ways in which film has reflected the islands’ colonization, militarization, racial segregation, plantation culture, and tourism.

•  Hopes and Expectations: The Origins of the Black Middle Class in Hartford by Barbara J. Beeching (State University of New York Press; 270 pages; $90). Draws on more than 200 letters from the 1860s in a study of three African-Americans with ties to the Connecticut city—Rebecca Primus, a schoolteacher on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, her brother Nelson Primus, an artist in Boston, and Addie Brown, a friend of Rebecca’s working as a domestic in Hartford.

•  Human Targets: Schools, Police, and the Criminalization of Latino Youth by Victor M. Rios (University of Chicago Press; 211 pages; $60 hardcover, $20 paperback). Draws on research among gang members in Southern California.

•  In Search of Safety: Confronting Inequality in Women’s Imprisonment by Barbara Owen, James Wells, and Joycelyn Pollock (University of California Press; 280 pages; $85 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Examines gender-linked disadvantages experienced by women and girls under incarceration.

•  In Search of Silence: The Journals of Samuel R. Delany, Volume I, 1957-1969 edited by Kenneth R. James (Wesleyan University Press, distributed by University Press of New England; 720 pages; $40). Annotated edition of the novelist and critic’s private journals, beginning when he was in high school and ending on the eve of reconceiving Dhalgren.

•  Ivory: Power and Poaching in Africa by Keith Somerville (Hurst, distributed by Oxford University Press; 390 pages; $29.95). Traces the history of African trade in elephant tusks over the centuries and argues that the only way to stem uncontrolled poaching may be regulation not prohibition.

•  Jazz and Cocktails: Rethinking Race and the Sound of Film Noir by Jans B. Wager (University of Texas Press; 163 pages; $85 hardcover, $24.95 paperback). Examines the varied functions of jazz in film noir, with discussion of such composers as Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Chico Hamilton, and John Lewis.

•  Jihad in West Africa during the Age of Revolutions by Paul E. Lovejoy (Ohio University Press; 432 pages; $90 hardcover, $34.95 paperback). A study of political change in the region from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries; topics include the expansion of slavery in the Muslim states of the Sokoto Caliphate, Fuuta Jalon, and Fuuta Toro.

•  Lincoln, Congress, and Emancipation edited by Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon (Ohio University Press; 288 pages; $45 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Writings on the path to the 13th Amendment; topics include the roles of Sen. Charles Sumner and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens.

•  Masculinities and Markets: Raced and Gendered Urban Politics in Milwaukee by Brenda Parker (University of Georgia Press; 256 pages; $84.95 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Topics include how the city’s development policies have strengthened existing hierarchies of gender, as well as class and race.

•  Monuments to Absence: Cherokee Removal and the Contest over Southern Memory by Andrew Denson (University of North Carolina Press; 304 pages; $85 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Discusses monuments and other memorials to the forced removal of the Cherokee.

•  The New Eugenics: Selective Breeding in an Era of Reproductive Technologies by Judith Daar (Yale University Press; 265 pages; $40). Finds an echo of eugenics in barriers that block certain people’s access to reproductive technologies because of biases linked to class, race, and marital status.

•  Njinga of Angola: Africa’s Warrior Queen by Linda M. Heywood (Harvard University Press; 310 pages; $29.95). Traces the life of the 17th-century African queen, who defied 13 Portuguese colonial governors between 1622 and 1663.

•  Patterns in Circulation: Cloth, Gender, and Materiality in West Africa by Nina Sylvanus (University of Chicago Press; 210 pages; $90 hardcover, $30 paperback). Draws on fieldwork in Lome, Togo’s capital, in a study of Togolese women and production and trade in wax-print cloth.

•  The Pinkster King and the King of Kongo: The Forgotten History of America’s Dutch-Owned Slaves by Jeroen Dewulf (University Press of Mississippi; 320 pages; $65). A study of Dutch-owned slaves and Dutch-speaking free blacks from 17th-century New Amsterdam to what became New York and New Jersey.

•  The Political Poetess: Victorian Femininity, Race, and the Legacy of Separate Spheres by Tricia Lootens (Princeton University Press; 335 pages; $45). Figures discussed include Felicia Dorothea Hemans, Elizabeth Barrett-Browning, Dinah Mulock Craik, and Frances E.W. Harper.

•  The Politics of the Second Slavery edited by Dale W. Tomich (State University of New York Press; 267 pages; $85). Writings on political dimensions of what has been termed the “second slavery,” or the remaking of Atlantic slavery as part of the expansion of the capitalist world economy in the early 19th century; focuses on the Cuban sugar zone, the Brazilian coffee zone, and the U.S. plantation South.

•  Recaptured Africans: Surviving Slave Ships, Detention, and Dislocation in the Final Years of the Slave Trade by Sharla M. Fett (University of North Carolina Press; 290 pages; $35). Discusses Africans seized by U.S. authorities from four illegal slaveships, the Echo, Wildfire, William, and Bogota, in 1858 and 1860, held in federal camps, and shipped to Liberia.

•  Remapping Black Germany: New Perspectives on Afro-German History, Politics, and Culture edited by Sara Lennox (University of Massachusetts Press; 376 pages; $90 hardcover, $31.95 paperback). Writings by scholar-activists on the black German experience since the German colonial period.

•  Rhetorics of Whiteness: Postracial Hauntings in Popular Culture, Social Media, and Education edited by Tammie M. Kennedy, Joyce Irene Middleton, and Krista Ratcliffe (Southern Illinois University Press; 338 pages; $45). Topics include hidden whiteness in representations of women of color on television, and color-blind rhetoric and appeals to whiteness in then-candidate-Barack Obama’s “A More Perfect Union” speech in March 2008.

•  The Rise of Africa’s Middle Class: Myths, Realities and Critical Engagements edited by Henning Melber (Zed Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 219 pages; $95 hardcover, $34.95 paperback). Writings by scholars in economics, political science, anthropology, and development; combines theoretical perspectives on the nature and role of Africa’s middle classes with case studies from Kenya, Nigeria, Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, and Tanzania.

•  The Rise of the Arab American Left: Activists, Allies, and Their Fight against Imperialism and Racism, 1960s–1980s by Pamela E. Pennock (University of North Carolina Press; 328 pages; $85 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Combines archival and interview sources in a study of Arab-American activism, particularly in the wake of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war.

•  Romaphobia: The Last Acceptable Form of Racism by Aidan McGarry (Zed Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 224 pages; $95 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Examines the origins of discrimination against the Roma in the early history of the European nation state; considers ways to further inclusion.

•  Simplicity, Equality, and Slavery: An Archaeology of Quakerism in the British Virgin Islands, 1740-1780 by John M. Chenoweth (University Press of Florida; 244 pages; $74.95). Combines archival and archaeological approaches in a study of a short-lived Quaker-inspired planter community and its efforts to navigate the contradictions of its religious ideals and its slave ownership.

•  Suspect Freedoms: The Racial and Sexual Politics of Cubanidad in New York, 1823-1957 by Nancy Raquel Mirabal (New York University Press; 311 pages; $89 hardcover, $30 paperback). A study of the exiles and migrants of the Cuban diaspora in the city.

•  US Latinization: Education and the New Latino South edited by Spencer Salas and Pedro R. Portes (State University of New York Press; 289 pages; $90). Writings on the educational implications of the growth of the Latino population, with a focus on the South; topics include parental and family engagement.

•  U.S. Women’s History: Untangling the Threads of Sisterhood edited by Leslie Brown, Jacqueline Castledine, and Anne Valk (Rutgers University Press; 231 pages; $90 hardcover, $27.95 paperback). Essays on issues that have both united and divided American women, including racial struggle and pornography.

•  Vanishing America: Species Extinction, Racial Peril, and the Origins of Conservation by Miles A. Powell (Harvard University Press; 251 pages; $39.95). Examines the early conservation movement’s ties to eugenics, immigration restrictions, and population control as leaders linked the preservation of wilderness to the preservation of the nation’s “Nordic” and “Anglo-Saxon” races.

•  The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy by Peter Temin (MIT Press; 256 pages; $26.95). Topics include how politicians appeal to the racial beliefs of poor white voters to promote policies that hurt low-income people in general.

•  When Police Kill by Franklin E. Zimring (Harvard University Press; 320 pages; $35). Uses data from 2015 to examine how, when, where, and why police resort to lethal force; proposes ways of reducing such incidents while protecting the lives of officers.

•  When Riot Cops Are Not Enough: The Policing and Repression of Occupy Oakland by Mike King (Rutgers University Press; 246 pages; $95 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Combines scholarly and activist perspectives in a study of physical, legal, political, and ideological aspects of responses to protesters in the Bay Area city from the fall of 2011 through the spring of 2012.

•  Who Owns Haiti? People, Power, and Sovereignty edited by Robert Maguire and Scott Freeman (University Press of Florida; 184 pages; $79.95). Writings on Haitian sovereignty in the face of external actors and pressures, from NGOs to military intervention.

•  Women’s Activism in Africa edited by Balghis Badri and Aili Mari Tripp (Zed Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 250 pages; $95 hardcover, $29.95 paperback). Topics include the women’s movements in Kenya, Morocco, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania.


About IBW21

IBW21 (The Institute of the Black World 21st Century) is committed to building the capacity of Black communities in the U.S. to work for the social, political, economic and cultural upliftment, the development of the global Black community and an enhanced quality of life for all marginalized people.